Nelson Mandela long walk to freedom NCERT solution for class 10 chapter 2 Explanation Question and answers
Nelson Mandela long walk to freedom by
(Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela )
Nelson Mandela long walk to freedom class 10
Before you Read
- Apartheid is a political system that separates people according to their race Can you say which of the three countries named below had such a political system Until very recently?
- North America
- South Africa
- have you heard of nelson Mandela? Mandela and his Africa National congress spent a lifetime fighting against apartheid Mandela had to spend thirty years in prison finally democratic elections were held in south Africa in 1994 and Mandela became the first black president of a new nation ,
In this extract from his autobiography long walk to freedom Mandela speaks about a historic occasion the inauguration can you guess what he occasion might be? check your guess with this news item ( from the BBC of 10 may 1994)
|Mandela Becomes South Africa’s first Black President |
Nelson Mandela has become south africa’s first black president after more than three centuries of white rule Mr, Mandela’s Africa national congress (ANC) party won 252 of the 400 Seats in the first democratic elections of south africa’s history
The inauguration ceremony took place in the Union buildings amphitheatre in pretoria today attended by politicians and dignitaries from more than 140 countries around the world never , never of one by another said Nelson Mandela in his address ,
Jubilant scenes on the streets of pretoria followed the ceremony with blacks whites and coloureds celebrating together more than 100,000 south africa men women and children of all races sang and danced with joy ,
Nelson Mandela long walk to freedom class 10 Characters
- Nelson Mandela: first black president of South Africa who fought for the equal rights of the black, he suffered a lot of pain for the freedom
- Zenani: Daughter of Nelson Mandela who accompanied Mandela in his inauguration day she was very much close to him ,
- Thabo Mbeki: first deputy president of south Africa who was very close to Mandela
- Mr, Deklerk:” second deputy president of south Africa
Nelson Mandela long walk to freedom class 10 Explanations”
Tenth may dawned bright and clear for the past few days I had been pleasantly besieged by dignitaries and world leaders who were coming to pay their respects before the inauguration the inauguration would be the largest gathering ever of international leaders o south africa soil, the ceremonies took place in the lovely sandstone amphithearte formed by the union buildings In pretoria for decades this had been the seat of white supremacy and now it was the site of a rainbow gathering of different colours and nations for the installation of south Africa’s first democratic non-racial government On that lovely autumn day I was accompanied by my daughter Zenani On the podium Mr de klerk was first sworn in as second deputy president then
Thabo Mbeki was sworn in as first deputy president when It was my turn I pledged to obey and Uphold the constitution and to devote myself to the well being of the Republic and its people to the assembled guests and the watching world I said”
Today all of us by our presence here–confer glory and hope to newborn liberty out of the experience of an extraordinary human disaster that lasted too long must be born a society of which all humanity will be proud we who were outlaws not so long ago have today been given the rare privilege to be host to the nation of the world on our own soil we thank all of our distinguished international guests for having come to take possession with the people of our country of what is after all a common victory for justice for peace for human dignity,
We have at last achieved our political emancipation we pledge ourselves to liberate all our people from the continuing bondage of poverty deprivation suffering gender and other discrimination never , Never and never again shall it be that this beautiful land will again experience the oppression of one by another, the sun shall never set on so glorious a human achievement
Let freedom reign God bless
Nelson Mandela long walk to freedom class 10 Oral Comprehension check
- where did the ceremonies take place? can you name any public buildings in India that are made of sandstone?
- Can you say how 10 may is an autumn day” in south Africa?
- at the beginning of his speech Mandela mentions an extraordinary human disaster ” what does he Mean by this? what is the glorious–human achievement he speak of at the end?
- what does Mandela thank the international leaders for?
- what ideals does he set out for the future of south Africa?
A few moments later we all lifted our eyes in awe as a spectacular array of south africa jets helicopters and trop carriers roared in perfect formation over the union buildings it was not only a display of pinpoint precision and military force but a demonstration of the military’s loyalty to democracy to a new government that had been freely and fairly elected only moments before the highest generals of the south Africa defence force and police their chests bedecked with ribbons and medals from days gone by saluted me and pledged their loyalty I was not unmindful of the fact that not so many years
before they would not have saluted but arrested me finally a chevron of Impala jets left a smoke trail of the black red green blue, and gold of the new south Africa flag, the day was symbolised for me by the playing of our two national anthems and the vision of whites singing Nkosi sikelel -i Africa and blacks singing die stem” the old anthem of the Republic Although that day neither group knew the lyrics of the anthem they once despised they would soon know the words by heart,
On the day of the inauguration I was overwhelmed with a sense of history In the first decade of the twentieth century a few years In the first the bitter anglo-Boer war and before my own birth the white -skinned peoples of south Africa patched up their difference and erected a system of racial domination against the dark -skinned peoples of their own land the structure they created formed the Basis of the one harshest most Inhumane societies the world has ever known now in the last decade of the twentieth century and my own eight decade as a man that system had been
overturned forever and replaced by one that recognised the rights and freedoms of all peoples regardless of the colour of their skin that day had come about through the unimaginable sacrifices of thousands of my people , people whose suffering and courage can never be counted or repaid I left that day as I have on so many other days, that I was had gone simply the sum of all those African patriots who had gone before me that long and noble line ended and now began again with me I was they were not able to see what their sacrifices had wrought,
The policy of apartheid created a deep and lasting wound in my country and my people all of us will spend many years if not generations recovering from that profound hurt but the decades of oppression and brutality had another unintended effect and that was that it produced the Oliver tambos the walter sisulus the chief Luthulis the yusuf Dadoons the brain Fischers the Robert sobunkwes of our time —Men of such extraordinary ,
Courage wisdom and generosity that their like may never be know again perhaps it required such depths of oppression to create such heights of character, my country is rich in the minerals and gems that lie beneath its soil but I have always known that its greatest wealth is its people finer and truer than the purest diamonds
It is from these comrades in the struggle that I Learned the Meaning of courage time and again I have seen ,men and women risk and give their lives for an idea I have seen men stand up to attacks and torture without breaking showing a strength and resilience that defies the Imagination I learned that courage was not the absence of fear but the triumph over it the brave ma is not he who does not feel afraid but he who conquers that fear,
No one is born hating another person because of the colour of his skin or his background or his religion people must learn to hate and if they can learn to hate they can be taught to love for love comes more naturally to the human heart than its opposite even in the grimmest times in prison when my comrades and I were pushed to our limits I would see a glimmer of humanity in one of the guards perhaps just for a second but it was enough to reassure me and keep me going man’s goodness is a flame that can be hidden but never extinguished ,
Nelson Mandela long walk to freedom class 10 Oral Comprehension Check
- what do the military generals do? how has their attitude changed and why?
- why were two national anthems sung?
- how does mandela describe the systems of government in his country (i) in the first decade and (ii) in the final decade of the twentieth century ?
- what does courage mean to Mandela?
- which does he think is natural to love or to hate?
In life, every man has twin obligations-obligations to his family to his parents to his wife and children and he has an obligation to his people his community his country In a civil and humane
Society each man is able to fulfil those obligations according to his own inclinations and abilities but in a country like south Africa it was almost impossible for a man of my birth and colour to fulfil both of those obligations In south Africa a man of Colour who attempted to live as a human being was punished and isolated In south Africa a man who tried to fulfil his duty to his people was inevitably ripped from his family and his home and was forced to live a life apart a twilight existence of secrecy and rebellion I did not in the beginning choose to place my people above my family but in attempting to serve my people I found that I was prevented from fulfilling my obligations as a son, a brother a father and a husband
I was not born with a hunger to be free I was born free –free in every way that I could know free to run in the fields near my mother’s hut free to swim in the clear stream that ran through my village free to roast Mealies under the stars and ride the broad backs of slow-moving bulls as long as I obeyed my father and abided by the customs of my tribe I was not troubled by the laws of man or God,
It was only when I began to learn that my boyhood freedom was an illusion when I discovered as a young man that my freedom had already been taken from me that I began to hunger for it at first as a student I wanted freedom only for myself the transitory I freedoms of being able to stay out at night read what I pleased and go where I chose later as a young man in Johannesburg I yearned for the basic and honorable freedom of achieves my potential of earning my keep of marrying and having a family the freedom not to be obstructed in a lawful life ,
But then I slowly saw that not only was I not free but my brothers and sisters were not free I saw that it was not just my freedom that was curtailed but the freedom of everyone who looked like I did that is when I joined the african national congress and that is when the hunger for my own freedom became the greater hunger for the freedom
Of my people it was this desire for the freedom of my people to live their lives with dignity and self respect that animated my life that transformed a frightened young man into a bold one that drove a law abiding attorney to become a criminal that turned a family -loving husband into man without a home that forced a life -loving man to live like a monk I am no more virtuous or self sacrificing than the next man but I found that I could not even enjoy the poor and limited freedoms I was allowed when I knew my people were not free freedom is indivisible the chains on anyone of my people were the chains on all of them the chains on all of my people were the chains on me I knew that the oppressed a man who takes away another man’s freedom is a prisoner of hatred he is locked behind the bars of prejudice and narrow, mindedness I am not truly free if i am taking away someone else’s freedom is taken from me the oppressed and the oppressor alike are robed of their humanity
Nelson Mandela long walk to freedom class 10 Oral comprehension check ,
- what twin obligations does mandela mention?
- what did being free mean to Mandela as a boy and as a student? how does he contrast these transitory freedoms, with the basic and honourable freedoms?
- Does Mandela think the oppressor is free? why/ why not?
1.Make a list of such pairs of Nouns and verbs in the text,
2. Read the paragraph below, fill in the blanks with the Nouns of the verbs in brackets,
Martin Luther kung’s——-(Contribute ) to our history as an outstanding leader began when he came to the ——–(assist) of Rosa parks’ seamstress who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white passenger In those days American blacks were confined to positions of second class Citizenship by restrictive laws and customs to break those laws would Mean ——(subjugate ) and ——–(humiliate) by the police and the legal system beatings——–(imprison) and sometimes death awaited those who defied the system Martin luther king’s tactics of protest involved Non-violent ———(Resist) to racial injustice
(II) Using the definite Article with names”
You know that the definite article the is not normally used before proper nous No do proper nous usually occur in the plural (we do not say the Nelson Mandela or” Nelson Mandelas) but now look at this sentence from the text,
—-the decades of oppression and brutality —produced the Oliver tambos the walter sisulus –of our time
Used in this way with the and ./ or in the plural a proper nous cartes a special Meaning for example” what do you think the names above Mean” ? choose the right answer,
(a) for example Oliver Tambo walter sisulu
(b) mary other men like Oliver Tambo walter sisulu / mary men of their type or kind whose names may not be as well known ,
Did you choose option (b)? then you have the right answer ,
here are some more example’s of the used with proper names try to say what these sentences Mean (you may consult a dictionary if you wish look at the entry for the”)
- Mr singh regularly Invites the Amitabh bachchans and the shah Rukh khans to his parties,
- Many people think that Madhuri Dixit is the Madhubala of our times
- history is not only the story of the Alexanders the Nepoleons and the Hitlers but of ordinary people as well,
(III) Idiomatic Expression
Match the italicised phrases in Column A with the phrase Neasrest in Meaning in column B (Hint, first look for the sentence in the text in which the phrase in Column A occurs)
|1. I was not Unmindful of the fact||(1) had not forgotten was never of the fact |
(2) was not careful about the fact
(3) forgot or was not aware of the fact
|2. when my Comrades and I were pushed to our limits||(1) pushed by the guards to the wall |
(2) took more than our share of beatings
(3) left that we could not endure the suffering any longer
|3. to reassure me and keep me going||(1) make me go on waling |
(2) help me continue to live in hope in this very difficult situation
(3) make me remain without complaining
|4. the basic and honourable freedoms of earning my keep-||(1) earning enough money to live on |
(2) keeping what I earned
(3) getting a good salary
In groups discuss issues suggested in the box below then prepare a speech of about two minutes on the following topic, (first make notes for your speech in writing )
True liberty is freedom from poverty deprivation and all forms of discrimination
- Causes of poverty and means of overcoming it
- discrimination based on gender religion class etc,
- Constitutionally guaranteed human rights,
Looking for contracts
Nelson Mandela’s writing is marked by balance many sentences have two parts in balance , use the following phrases to complete the sentences give below,
(i) they can be taught to love
(ii) I was born free
(iii) but the triumph over it
(Iv) but he who conquers that fear
(v) to create such heights of character,
- it requires such depths of oppression—————
- Courage was not the absence of fear—————-
- The brave man is not he who does not feel afraid ————-
- if people can learn to hate————
- I was not born with a hunger to be free————
(II) This text repeatedly contrasts the past with the present or the future we can use coordinated clauses to contrast two view for emphasis or effect give below are sentences carrying one part of the contrast find in the text the second part of the contrast and complete each item Identify the words which signal the Contrast this has been done for you in the first item
- for decades the union buildings has been the seat of white supremacy and now–
- Only moments before the highest generals of the south Africa defence force and police –saluted me and pledged their loyally –not so many years before they would not have saluted ————
- Although that day neither group knew the Lyrics of the anthem ——–they would soon ———
- My country is rich in the Minerals and gems that lie beneath its soil ———–
- The Air show was not only a display of pinpoint precision and military force, but——–
- it was this desire for the freedom of my people that transformed ————-into a bold one that drove ———-to become a criminal that turned ———-into a man without a home ,
Nelson Mandela long walk to freedom class 10 Notes on the chapter
- 10th of may was a day of freedom for south Africa and there was huge gathering international leaders and dignitaries
- Inauguration ceremony or swearing In ceremony was being held In union building in pretoria and first non-racial government took the charge
- Nelson mandela gave speech on the victory for justice peace and human dignity
- Mandela pledged to lIberate his people from poverty suffering and discrimination
- A colourful show by jets and hellicopters to show millitary’s loyality took place
- Singing of two national anthems was done-the old Nkosi sikelet” by the h whites and the new die stem by the blacks
- A new system that recognised the rights and freedom of all people was formed
- Mandela remembered and thanked the people who sacrificed their lives for the freedom
- Salutation to some great freedom Fighters Oliver Tambo, walter sisulu, chief Luthull yusuf Dadoo and others
- Mandela Said in speech that a country is rich because of its people not because of the minerals Courage is not the absence of fear but the victory over it people should love and others and not hate them due to Colour or Religion , love comes naturally not by force which is the natural goodness,
Nelson Mandela long walk to freedom class 10 Question and answers
Question:1 who was Nelson Mandela? for how many years did he spent in prison ?
Answer: Nelson Mandela was a freedom fighter of south Africa and its first black president he spent 27 years in prison
Question:2 How was Mandela overhelmed with a sense of history?
Answer” In the first decade of the twentieth century and before Mandela’s birth the whites in South Africa had erected a system of racial domination known as, aparheid, In the last decade of the twentieth century when Mandela was in his eighties, he saw that system crumbling so he was overhelemd with a sense of history
Question:3 why did Mandela thank the international Leader for?
Answer” Mandela thanked the international leaders for having come to take part in the common victory for justice peace and human dignity on the south Africa, soil
Question:4 what did Mandela think of a patriots of Africa and of himself?
Answer: Mandela thought that the freedom of south Africa had come through the suffering and courage of the patriots he said that the simply the sum total of all those patriots he regretted for having not been able to thank them
Question:5 how did the policy of Apartheid affect his country ?
Answer” The policy of aparthied left a lasting wound on South Africa it was one of the harshest and most inhumane policies the world has ever seen the rights and freedoms of South African natives had been taken away by this policy of the ruling whites,
Question:6 what does courage Mean to Mandela?
Answer “ According to Mandela courage is not the absence of fear but the triumph over it the brave man is not he who does not afraid but he who conquers that fear
Question:7 Describe the twin obligations as stated by the author?
Answer” the twin obligations stated by Mandela are
(1) Obligation to one’s family to parents, to wife, and to Children
(2) Obligations to one’s people to the community and to the country “
Question:8 what did Mandela mean when he Mentioned an extraordinary human disaster?
Answer” Mandela Meant the indescribable suffering of the south Africa people under the rule of the whites when he Mentioned an extraordinary human disaster”
Question:9 what changed Mandela as a young man into a bold one?
Answer” Mandela desire for the freedom of his people to live their lives with dignity and self-respect changed him into a bold ne
Question:10 how had the military generals, attitude changed and why?”
Answer” The Military generals had witnessed the extraordinary courage and wisdom shown by Nelson Mandela in freeing south Africa from the bondage of whites the Military generals, who would have arrested mandela earlier , have now pledge their loyalty to him, this shows their change in attitude”