Direction and communication full explanation
direction and communication
you Read all these points
- meaning of Direction
- Importance of direction
- features of direction
- Elements of direction
- function of supervision
- communication process
- channels of communication
- Formal of communication
- Informal of communication
- Vertical communication
- Horizontal communication
- importance of communication
- Barriers to communication
- principles of effective communication
1.meaning of Direction:
direction may be defined as the function of management which is related with instructing guiding and inspiring human factor in the organisation to achieve organisational objectives, the direction is not merely issuing orders and instructions by a superior to his subordinates but it includes the process of guiding and inspiring them,
2.Importance of direction
direction is an important function of management, through direction management initiates action in the organisation, gets thing done through orders providers subordinates opportunities for developments, it integrates employees, efforts, their action are interrelated in such a way that each individual’s performance affects the performance of others in the organisation moreover. direction facilities changes, in the organisation, to incorporate and implement these changes, management should motivate individuals affected by these changes.
direction and communication
3.features of direction
- it is an important managerial function
- it is a pervasive function–it is performed at all levels of management
- it is a continuous process.
- it start at the top level in the organisation and follows down to bottom through hirerarchy
4.Principles of direction
direction is of one of the most complex function of management as it deals with people whose nature itself is quite complex and unpredictable. following are the important principles of good and effective direction.
- unity of command-An employee to receive orders from one boss at a given time
- principle of managerial communication–A superior, through downward communication, passes to his subordinates orders, ideas about work and through upward communication, he known how his subordinates are working
- principle of use of Informal organisation-managers should understand, accept and use the informal organisation to supplement and support the formal channels of communication
- Effective Leadership–Dynamic leadership is essential to effective direction, an effective leader guides and counsels his subordinates on work problems as well as on their personal problem,
5.Elements of direction
The process of direction consists of the following function
supervision refers to guiding, commanding and regulating the efforts of subordinates towards the goals, it involves direct personal contact with subordinates ,supervision is essential for the execution of plans, the supervision acts as a link between workers and management, supervision is necessary at all levels of management, it is an important function of every manager. quality of a good supervisor: to be effective, must have the following qualities:
- Technical competence,
- managerial skill
- leadership qualities,
- sense of responsibility
- Tact and persuation
7.Functions of supervision
- To issue orders and instructions and explain management plans
- To establish methods and procedures and enforce rule and regulations
- To maintain discipline and cooperation
- To supply data on current operations to management
- To supply tools, materials etc, to workers
- To hear workers complaint, grievances and suggestions
- To coordinate and control operations,
- To recommend pay increase, promotions, transfers, etc,
communication is the sum-total of all things one person does to create understanding in the mind of another . it involves interchange of information and thoughts to create mutual understanding, it involves a continuous process of telling, listening and understanding
This definition reveals the following features:
- communication involves exchange of facts and thoughts from one person to another
- it is two-way process involving sending of a message and receiving the reaction to that message
- it is continuous process
- it is pervasive function:i:e performed at all levels of management.
- it aims at creating mutual understanding
The communication process has the following elements:
- sender–The person who intends to make contact with the objective of passing information, ideas to other person is known as sender
- Ideas--this is the subject matter of communication, e:g, opinion, attitude, views suggestions, order etc
- Encoding–Involves expressing the message in words and symbols
- Channel–A communication is transmitted through a channel e:g, telephone etc
- Receiver–Receiver is the person to whom message is meant for
- feed-back-feed back is the response reaction to the message, it is necessary to ensure that the receiver the message and understands is in the same sense as a sender wants.
10.Channels of communication-communication may be classified as:
- Formal and Informal communication, and
- vertical and horizontal communication
The formal channel is deliberately created, officially prescribed path for flow of information between the various position in the organisation, it is designed to ensure that desired information flows smoothly and accurately to the specified points, the downward and upward communication between a superior and his subordinates are implicit in a formal structure, In order to avoid delays in decision making, organisations now permit lateral or horizontal communication
direction and communication
the informal channel of communication, also grapevine” is the result not of any official action but of operation of social forces at workplace, while formal communication exists to meet the utilisation needs of the organisation, formal communication is the method by which people carry on social, nonprogrammed activities within the it formal structure Informal communication is faster and more flexible than the formal communication however, it is erratic and unsystematic, it generally carries rumours and it is not possible to fix responsibility for the distorted information,
it serves as a safety value for emotions of the employees, it fills a vacuum in formal communication and people often learn managerial decisions long before the formal announcement, the informal communication is a part and parcel of the organisational process, the only thing management can do is to take suitable action to minimize the adverse effects of this channel, as such proper analysis of informal communication and a suitable clarification in this aspect will be helpful in making its use towards organisational efficiency.
vertical communication refers to the communication between a superior and his subordinates, vertical communication may be upward or downward upward communication flows from a subordinates to a superior in the from of discussion, suggestions, grievances, reports etc downward communication refers to communication from a superior to his subordinates in the form orders, instructions, rules clarification
Horizontal communication takes place between equals, it help in creating coordination between different department and divisions, this type of communication is more relevant to an organisation engaged in research activities, the more important thing is to find a proper balance between the various type of channels of communication.
15.Importance of communication
The need of good and effective communication arises on account of the following factors:
- company Image:– An effective system of communication plays an important role in building harmonious relations with trade unions, consumers, government etc
- Effective Administration :– through communication, management issues orders and instructions and comes to know of the reaction of subordinates,
- coordination:– communication is the most effective means of building coordination
- better Delegation of Authority:– through communication, subordinates come to understand clearly the limits of their authority and responsibility
16.Barriers to communication
The following are the important barriers to communication;
- badly Expressed message:– message may lack in the coherence, inadequate vocabulary and inappropriate language, the use of semantic words(having more than one meaning ) may lead to communication problems
- Inattention:– it is a common phenomenon that people simply fail to react to bulletins, notice , minutes and reports.
- premature Evaluation:– premature evaluation is the tendency of prematurely evaluating communication rather than to keep an uncompromised position during the interchange
- Resistance to change:– when the communication involves a change that seriously affects employees, they may not take the message seriously . the basic problem in communication is not of techniques but of proper climate.
- Mutual trust:- Effective communication is possible when there is lack of confidence and mutual understanding between superior and subordinates a good communication atmosphere requires mutual trust and confidence to enable people to appreciate one another’s point of view
- Fear;– subordinates may not disclose the facts fully because of the fear of the consequences of such a disclosure . they may deliberately mislead the superior to seek clarification due to the feeling that it will lower down their prestige.
- complex organisational structure:- an organisational structure involving several layers of supervision, use of staff specialists and a long chain of command is a major barrier to effective communication . .
17.Principles of effective communication
The following are the principles for effective communication;
- principle of charity;- clarity of communication will overcome several barriers to communication the contents of the message should be clear.
- principle of Integrity:– all communication must be formed and transmitted in such a way as to support the integrity of the formal organisation
- principle of strategic use of Informal organisation:– manager should engage the informal organisation to supplement and strengthen formal channels of communication .
- principle of participation:– both the communicater or sender and the communicater or receiver should take active part in the process of communication.